Modern Manufacturing Plant Automation

Many manufacturers turn to an IoT approach as a cost-effective approach to modernising their infrastructure and increasing the speed of production. Sure, large fully automated plants have been in existence for a significant period of time, but it is only now that parts of this technology have started being used commonly amongst small to medium sized businesses. With the emergence of cheap, onsite prototyping from 3D printers, many SMEs are looking more closely at what other IoT based technologies can be incorporated into their workflow.

Aside from the design and manufacturing benefits, these technologies are also allowing plant managers and overseers to assess the operations of their facilities in real time, as a result, any problems that may occur are able to be picked up and resolved quicker with less waist and downtime.
Automated machinery and tools can operate for long periods of time and can adjust their speeds in response to delays in other points of the production line.

Full-scale automation can be very costly, as workspaces, or even buildings may need to be redesigned. The introduction of individual automatic machinery is much more reasonable of most companies.

Another solution that many are turning to are the upcoming robots-as-a-service providers, which work like common software-as-a-service agreements; it is essentially a model which encompasses the fields of artificial intelligence, cloud computing and shared services in one combined package and works similar to the renting of equipment from a third-party provider.

A recent study has revealed that the two fastest growing industries for RAAS are healthcare and manufacturing.

Improved Functionality from Smart Electric Valve Actuators

The design of smart electric valve actuators remained near stagnant for many years with most designs relying on the traditional cam and micro-switch solution to stop the motor. So-called design improvements often saw small changes to improve the design of the cams and switches, or the introduction of a brushless motor, for example, rather than a more radical change to the basic principals of operation.

Recent advances have seen a move towards digital control of the actuator’s position via digital magnetic positioning technology, which offers not only improved accuracy as it is digital but also a non-mechanical system which has obviously improved lifetime service implications compared to mechanical systems that are prone to ‘wear and tear’.

Whilst the elimination of mechanical components hints at improve total life cost as there as fewer parts that can fail, it is the switch to control of the functionality of the electrical actuator by software that is the more significant benefit. Employing brushless motors from the start, actuators like the AVA actuator available from Actuated Valve Supplies in the UK, recently tested by J4C-S have embraced modern technology and offer a dazzling list of standard and optional features, all controlled by software.

Combining a user interface comprising of a bright OLED screen and external push buttons, users not only have useful operational information displayed on the screen but have the ability to either control the electronic actuator locally, more commonly referred to a ‘local control’, but can make minor adjustments to several useful operational parameters that separates valve actuators like the AVA actuator from most rivals in its class, from a user perspective.

Features such as speed control, external adjustment of zero and span (open and closed positions) which in electric actuators with cams and switches requires the cover to be removed to access the switches, and external setting for 3 positions become standard features in software-driven actuators rather than ‘factory specials’ from manufacturers still using the original cam and switches design.

Smart Rotary Electric Actuators

Smart electric actuators are devices that convert electrical energy into rotary torque which then can drive and automate various apparatus in industry.


With basic electrical actuators, the motor drives the equipment until the desired position is reached; this position is usually detected using a system of cams mounted to the actuator’s driveshaft, but can also be ascertained with magnetic digital position sensors linked with digital encoders, that when coupled with appropriate software or firmware stops the motor when a specific, usually pre-configured, angular position is reached.


The device’s motor usually drives the driveshaft via a planetary gearbox. This driveshaft then conects to the required apperatus, a valve for example, using a system defined in international standard ISO5211.

ISO5211 :2017

Control


The electrical and control connections vary substantially between applications and countries, ranging from traditional cable glands and cables connected to an internal terminal-strips, through to highly-sophisticated computerised data-bus connections over wired, or increasingly wireless, networks that has led to physical separation of control and manufacturing systems across the globe. This physical separation is especially useful for automated systems that span large geographical distances such as water or oil pipelines.

Modbus over TCP/IP, RS-232 or RS-485 is still one of the most widely used
Industrial Ethernet protocols currently in use today. The protocol fully complies with the standards defined in IEC 61158 and has become a de facto standard; this is despite it being originally propitiatory (Schneider Electric) and dating back to the late 1970s.

Types

There are generally four types of electric actuators, uni-directional, on-off, fail-safe and modulating.

  • Uni-directional actuators always rotate in the same direction with the motor being stopped at certain angular intervals (usually 90°).
  • On-off actuators drive the driveshaft from fully open to fully closed, or back as one movement.
  • Fail-safe actuators have a secondary power supply, this is usually a battery or increasingly a capacitor. This supply drives the actuator to a preset safe position on the loss of primary power.
  • Modulating actuators derive their drive-to angular position from either a digital or analogue input signal.
Copyright Journal for Control-Systems Engineering 2019
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